How to analyze stakeholder requirements



Stakeholder expectations

In a project, every stakeholder has their own needs and end vision. Each of their expectations will not be the same and may divert along different tangents during the phases of the project. The Project Manager is responsible for the project and in getting the entire project in check by identifying stakeholder expectations and addressing each of their needs by a set of plans. The idea is to encourage stakeholder support, decrease dissatisfaction and take the project along a feasible and practical line of action.

The Stakeholder Analysis is carried out by the Project Manager at the start of every project and follows a general pattern of identifying stakeholder needs and arriving at an action plan. The success of the project depends on this.


Instructions

Step 1

List stakeholders

Make a list of all the stakeholders involved. They may be;

* Project Manager — responsible for the project

* Project Team — works on the project to deliver

* Project Sponsor — source of funds for the project

* End beneficiaries / consumers — may be general public / customers / company

* Performing Organization — the company / organization or employer

Step 2

Understand stakeholders

From the list of stakeholders, understand the role that each play in the project and outline needs or apprehensions that might require attention. The major points to be noted are :

* key requirements that might satisfy them,

* amount of support that each might render towards the project, and

* how would change affect them from time to time during a project life cycle

Step 3

Analyze stakeholder interests

Study the interests of each stakeholder with respect to a project. A rating scale ( for eg 1 — 5) may be helpful against each point noted, such as;

* Vital

* Significant

* Some effect on time / quality / cost

* No effect

Step 4

Plan of action

Once the important stakeholder objectives have been outlined, a plan of action has to be formed to meet these objectives. It would also look at each stakeholder’s role in this plan of action.

The Project Manager (PM) will have to outline the below mentioned points to do the analysis.

* Name of the stakeholder

* Stakeholder’s interest or potential impact

* P.M’s asseement of the project

* Action by PM to increase stakeholder satisfaction

* Action by PM to reduce stakeholder dissatisfaction or opposition

Step 5

Implementation

The plan of action should and will automatically lead to the implementation or carrying out of the plan. A systematic approach has to be followed or the project will not be a success. Therefore it is of prime importance that the plan of action be followed to the tee and any change to a part or the entire set of plans will have to first be communicated in writing to all stakeholders and an a majority vote considered. Implementation is very important to wrap up the preparatory phase of the project and initiate the work phase.


Things Needed
• A list of all the stakeholders
• Stakeholder specification
• Pen, pad
• Team huddle / meeting

Tips & Warnings
• Not all stakeholders will be of the same mind
• Expect discussions and debates
• Deciding on the method to the end result / product can be time consuming and tedious
• Although the project manager might be responsible for the entire project, other stakeholders might try to control it

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