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How to simulate a volcanic eruption with an acid and a base

Safely creating an erupting 'volcano' When a liquid acid is mixed with a solid carbonate base such as powdered bicarbonate of soda, carbon dioxide gas is produced. The resulting mix is a gas plus a liquid instead of a liquid plus a solid, which takes up more space. If a flask is used to simulate... More

How to make hydrogen gas from magnesium and hydrochloric acid

Safety First Hydrogen gas is explosive so it should only be made in a laboratory with a qualified Science teacher or responsible adult present. Safety goggles should always be worn when using an acid and making a gas. Read and follow the directions carefully. Hydrogen gas is lighter than air so... More

How to live with depression

Sometimes due to circumstances beyond ones control, life, loss, or genetics, depression can set in and manifest itself in different ways. From mild to severe, depression can rob a person of their ability to function normally as a human in society. Depression doesn't only affect the one who is... More

How to make leaf prints

The Art of Frottage Before the invention of photography, drawings were the only way to record what plants and animals looked like. One method of accurately recording the exact pattern of veins on a plant's leaves was the rubbing or frottage. This was not just child's play although children enjoy... More

How to identify and classify Porella

Porella Systematic Position Division: Bryophyta Class: Hepaticopsida Order: Jungermanniales Sub order: Jungermannineae Family: Porellaceae Genus: Porella Porella is the only genus in the family Porellaceae and is found everywhere, except in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. They grow to about 15... More

How to identify and classify Morchella (Morel Mushrooms)

Morel mushroom Systematic position Kingdom: Fungi Division: Eumycota Sub-division: Ascomycotina Class: Discomycetes Order: Pezizales Family: Helvellaceae Genus: Morchella Morchella, commonly known as Morel mushroom, is a saprophytic fungus (ie. it derives its nourishment from dead or decaying... More

How to turn bones to rubber

Calcium is what makes bones hard We all start life with soft bones, made mostly of cartilage. As we grow, calcium is added to the bones, giving them the strength to hold us up against gravity. Without calcium we would not be able to stand or walk. Calcium can be removed from bones because it is... More

How to use the surface tension of water to power a paper boat

Surface tension is the force that holds water together Water molecules are more attracted to each other than to air. This creates the phenomenon we call surface tension. The water molecules on the surface are more attracted to the other molecules on either side of them than to the air molecules.... More

How to light a Bunsen burner

Safety first Before anyone lights a Bunsen burner, several steps need to be carried out. Are all gas taps off? Are all bunsen burners working properly? (For instance, sometimes the air vents are jammed) Are all plastic connector hoses in good condition with no holes? Make sure the students are... More

How to identify and classify Pellia

Pellia Systematic Position Division: Bryophyta Class: Hepaticopsida Order:Jungermanniales Sub-order: Metzgerineae Family Pelliaceae Genus Pellia Pellia, a genus with only four species, is known to exist only in India. They are P.calycina, P.epiphylla, P.endivaefolia and P.neesiana. There is a... More

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